located on Salsette Island which lies at the mouth of Ulhas River off
the western coast of India in the coastal region known as the Konkan.
Most of Mumbai is at sea level and the average elevation ranges from 10
to 15 metres. The northern part of Mumbai is hilly and the highest point
of the city is at 450 metres (1,450 feet). Mumbai spans a total area of
468 km? (169 square miles).
Three lakes are located within the metropolitan limits ? the Tulsi Lake,
Vihar Lake and the Powai Lake. The first two are located within the
Borivali National Park and supply part of the city's drinking water.
Mumbai also has three small rivers within the city limits originating in
the National Park. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous
creeks and bays. On the eastern seaboard, large mangrove swamps rich in
biodiversity occupy most of the region.
Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its
proximity to the sea. In the suburbs the soil cover is largely alluvial
and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan
basalt flows and their acid and basic variants dating back to the late
Cretaceous and early Eocene geological eras. Mumbai sits on a
seismically active zone owing to the presence of three fault lines in
the vicinity. The area is classified as a Zone III region, which means
an earthquake of magnitude of up to 6.5 can be expected.
Mumbai is classified as a metropolis of India, under the jurisdiction of
the Brihan Mumbai Municipal Corporation. It consists of two discrete
regions ? the City and the Suburbs, which also form two districts of
Maharashtra. The city region is also commonly referred to as the Island
City by most media publications.
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